SQL Expressions

Arithmetic Expressions

Type Casts

A type cast converts a specified-typed data to another-typed data. Tajo has two type cast syntax:

CAST ( expression AS type )

In addition, several functions are provided for type conversion. Please refer to Data Type Functions and Operators and DateTime Functions and Operators.

String Literals

A string constant is an arbitrary sequence of characters bounded by single quotes ('):


Function Calls

The syntax for a function call consists of the name of a function and its argument list enclosed in parentheses:

function_name ([expression [, expression ... ]] )

For more information about functions, please refer to Functions.

Window Function Calls

A window function call performs aggregate operation across the window which is a set of rows that are related to the current row. An window function has the following syntax.

function_name OVER ( window_definition )

where function_name is the name of aggregation function. Any aggregation function or window function can be used. For built-in aggregation functions and window functions, please refer to Aggregation Functions and Window Functions.

window_definition has the following syntax.

[ PARTITION BY expression [, ...] ]
[ ORDER BY expression [ ASC | DESC ] [ NULLS { FIRST | LAST } ] [, ...] ]

In the above syntax, expression can be any expression except window function call itself. PARTITION BY and ORDER BY lists have the same syntax and semantics as GROUP BY and ORDER BY clauses. That is, PARTITION BY list describes how the output result will be partitioned like GROUP BY clause creates multiple partitions according to the value of its expression. With ORDER BY list, result values are sorted in each partition.

Here are some examples.

select l_orderkey, count(*) as cnt, row_number() over (order by count(*) desc) row_num from lineitem group by l_orderkey order by l_orderkey;

select o_custkey, o_orderstatus, sum(o_totalprice) over (partition by o_custkey) as price from orders;

select l_linenumber, l_tax, sum(l_quantity) over (partition by l_linenumber order by l_tax desc) as quantity, avg(l_extendedprice) over (partition by l_shipdate) from lineitem order by l_tax;